I woke up this morning and saw a great blog post by Arialdo Martini that inspired me to blog a little bit (thanks, Arialdo!)
In the post, he describes the problems of using primitive variables in your classes, and the pitfalls of using a service locator pattern to resolve those issues. It’s a good read; I recommend checking it out. The conclusion he came to (and I’m greatly oversimplifying here) is that configuration settings work better as value objects, and shows some tricks for how to achieve this in a more painless way.
I definitely agree that a value object is better than a primitive when it makes sense. However, there are times when a collection of primitives does make the most sense.
So, I thought I’d share some current thoughts on how I prefer to inject configuration into my classes.
Setting up the Problem
Let’s say I have a class – let’s call it
MyEmailSender – that takes in a fromAddress and which SMTP server to use:
This becomes cumbersome when:
- The number of configuration properties grows. One setting might be fine, but 5 configuration settings will be much more cumbersome.
- (Side note: one could argue that if you need 5 different configuration parameters, your class is doing too much and should be broken down anyway, but roll with me on this.)
- You’re trying to keep similar configuration uniform. Using different configuration properties in different ways can cause confusion.
- You have to hit AppSettings to create this object. That’s pretty annoying and makes your code dependent on something you can’t test.
- You try to use an IoC container to inject these primitives. This is what Arialdo’s post helps a great deal with. IoC containers play much better when you’re not injecting many small primitives.
- You attempt to account for real world scenarios. What happens when a config is missing or you need to supply a default or an override of some kind? How can you be sure the app works?
My Preferred Solution to this Problem
When faced with a number of primitive configurations, my preferred steps to refactor our way out of it are:
Extract the Configuration to an Interface / Immutable POCO
NOTE: This would be one interface per type of configuration that you need. Don’t be afraid to inject multiple small interfaces into your class rather than one giant configuration. Interfaces may eventually be re-used, and it’s nice to keep contracts small.
So, we’d create an interface & immutable POCO like:
And we refactor our
MyEmailSender class to:
Wire up Dependencies Using an IoC Container
Next up – I don’t like having to create the
EmailSettingsobject or the
MyEmailSendermanually, passing in all of the dependencies.
So, we’ll use an IoC container (in this case Autofac, but that’s just for the sake of example) and wire up the dependency to get passed in.
Now our calling code will look like:
No hard-wired dependencies right in the class – I’m feeling better already. ### Extract a class for obtaining the settings but pulling from the config settings right in the registration for the container seems dicey at best. What if something blows up? What if I want to test this? What if I want more flexibility?
Sounds like obtaining the settings is its own responsibility. So we create a class:
and we update the registration:
For AppSettings, Extract a Small Interface/Wrapper
But we’re still calling ConfigurationManager directly from within our class. Not sure I like that – what if I want to test what happens when a config value is incorrect?
So we’ll create an interface and a tiny wrapper for the app settings:
And we’ll use it in our
This allows us to write tests that can make the app settings return whatever they want, quickly and easily.
We can’t forget to update the container registration:
Write Some Tests!
Bonus points if we’d been doing it all, along the way. 🙂 Some common scenarios I like to cover are:
- What happens if
ConfigurationManagerthrows an error?
- What happens if a setting is empty?
- What happens if a setting has a garbage value?
- Do you want something to have a default value?
- Do you have tests where a setting should be different depending on the source setting?
- Are you converting values from strings to their expected types correctly?
We won’t cover writing the tests here due to the length, but I’ll add some to the sample repository (see below).
Extract Helper Methods for Common Types of Extraction
As your code is covered by tests, extracting out some pieces to do common types of work will be trivial.
For example, I find that you commonly end up with the concept of retrieving a value or a default, e.g.:
This will start to yield a greater degree of flexibility in how you ingest and deal with configuration values.
- With this setup, you can still introduce value objects in the place of primitives where they make sense.
- You could also set up an easy configuration check by using your IoC container to instantiate a number of settings objects upon startup and intelligently surfacing any errors with configuration.
- Optional values: You could use these interfaces to communicate optional values (there’s a great library called Optional that can help with this)
- Including values that may be optional for one type of configuration but required or defaulted for another.
- What other possibilities do you see? Sound off in the comments!
Benefits of This Approach
- Greater flexibility: Your interfaces can express whatever settings they need to do the job.
- Better error handling/logging: You can find many opportunities to create cleaner, more expressive errors and log more intelligent warnings when a configuration value isn’t found.
- Centralized Config handling: Your code can depend on a configuration that it needs and know that it will be in the right format, without having all sorts of checks and conversions strewn throughout the code.
- Appropriately-sized contracts: You can separate different types of configuration into the groupings that matter the most, and deliver strongly typed results.
- Testable: Want to be sure about how your settings will work? You can prove every bit of it with unit tests.
Drawbacks of This Approach
To be fair, there are some drawbacks that I can think of off-hand:
- Lots more classes: Depending on how many configuration settings you have and all the different places they’re used, this may lead to a number of new, albeit smaller, classes and interfaces, which may seem cumbersome to navigate.
- More work when configs are still churning: If your project is in the early stages and the configurations are evolving rapidly, you may not want to take this approach yet. When the solution has settled down a bit, you can apply the refactoring steps in this article to introduce more robust configuration handling.
To me, the trade-offs are worth it. But I might be missing some (drop me a line in the comments if you think of a drawback that I’m not considering here).
A Working Source Code Example
What’s better to demonstrate an example than some running code, right?
I lay out some of these concepts in a sample repository on GitHub. Feel free to check it out and run it on your own!
Addendum: Do We Really Need Interfaces Here?
Excellent dev and all-around nice guy Sebastien Lambla gave me some good feedback after the initial draft of this post, questioning whether I needed to use interfaces at all, and could instead inject POCOs/DTOs.
This is a really good point. I’ll go through some arguments for using interfaces and (what I now believe to be) the better arguments against it.
(Side note: I really like getting to learn things on the fly this way. Have anything to add? Tell me in the comments!
What Do I mean by Using DTOs/POCOs instead?
DTOs and POCOs certainly represent an alternative to interfaces. What Sebastien suggested is that instead of wiring up the interface, we could just use the object as-is:
And inject it like so:
Arguments for Using Interfaces to Inject Configuration
When I initially used the muscle memory of interfaces here, I was thinking it would help with:
- Consistency/muscle memory: I already use interfaces for my other dependencies in general. Why not use it for configuration as well?
- Mocking: It’s pretty easy to do a
new Mock<IWhateverInterfaceIWant>()and wire that up for tests.
- Interface segregation: What if I want to use a tiny piece of a larger configuration object?
Why Those Arguments Aren’t Good Enough
After some further pondering of Seb’s feedback, the following is clear to me:
- Configuration isn’t behavior: Interfaces are meant to abstract behaviors, but configuration of primitive values isn’t behavior. So, it’s not necessarily a good fit.
- Do I really need a small piece of configuration?: I mentioned interface segregation above, but this seems to fall squarely into the YAGNI 3 bucket. Is there really a situation in which I might need a smaller subset of configuration and want a different interface? In that situation, couldn’t I just as easily create a separate DTO from the larger DTO and cache that? Probably best to wait until the need arises.
- DTOs are still a contract: Especially if these DTO classes are immutable, they’re not all of a sudden going to change on me, and I’ll still easily be able to adapt them as they evolve.
- I can still fake them for tests: With minimal extra code, I can still easily fake these POCO classes for the purposes of tests – I don’t really need a mock in order to fake any behavior here.
- Lose the extra file/overhead: Without losing any clarity, flexibility, or testability, I can get rid of a whole file. Less code is generally a good thing.
Addendum: Too Much Configuration is a Code Smell
Another great thought that Seb touched on was that too many configurable dependencies being passed in could be a sign on its own that something is wrong. I’ve always agreed on this, so I thought it’d be a good idea to state here as well.
If you have several pieces of configuration being passed in, that’s a good indicator that your class may be doing too much, and you should seek out smaller classes that each has a smaller, well-defined responsibility. Those separate classes would likely each take in their own small piece of configuration.
Similarly, if you’re passing configuration around everywhere, perhaps there are other objects that could be wired up and passed in, rather than taking in configuration all over the app. The more you can isolate those dependencies, the better.
I’d love to hear feedback on what you think. Is this approach a reasonable way of injecting configuration? Sound off in the comments!
- Data Transfer Objects.
- Plain Old CLR Objects.
- “You Ain’t Gonna Need It”.